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Newer threats to the hydrocarbon model-II: Cement and steel production can go all-electric too
Nov 14: Renewables-based hydrogen could be used to reduce iron ore into pig iron that would then be melted in electric arc furnaces with some scrap iron, drastically reducing CO2 emissions in steelmaking. The Swedish steelmaking industry is currently developing this option.
8Emissions associated with cement manufacturing (2.2 GtCO2/y) could be reduced by using solar or electric heat, or by combusting hydrogen-rich synthetic fuels. The full or near-full elimination of emissions – including process CO2 emissions – is conceivable based on molten carbonate electrolysis of dense CO2 fluxes, or direct electrolysis of solubilised limestone.
8The possible valorisation of carbon co-products such as methanol or carbon nanotubes could make emissions-free cement-making more profitable than traditional manufacturing,
 although these options are still only at laboratory scale.
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